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During consolidation, the densification and subsequent volume shrinkage of the fresh concrete forces entrapped air voids and excess water out of the cementitious matrix.
However, problems do arise if the concrete surface is to be painted or if the voids reach a larger diameter (typically greater than 1 inch).
Bugholes are surface voids that result from the migration of entrapped air (and to a lesser extent water) to the fresh concrete-form interface.
These surface defects manifest themselves mostly in vertical surfaces.
Concrete with an optimally graded aggregate that avoids excessive quantities of fine aggregate, properly proportioned cement content, and any admixture that provides increased flow, workability, or ease of consolidation contributes to bughole reduction.
Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is becoming increasing popular for industries (precast especially) to improve surface quality.